The last refuge of Mughal Emperor Humayun reminds rather of
a luxurious palace, than a tomb.
Located in the eastern part of Dehli, Humayun’s tomb is one
of the best preserved Mughal monuments. This spellbinding mausoleum is
the first example of Mughal architecture in India.
After a century from its construction Humayun’s tomb
inspired the construction of the more famous Taj Mahal.
From the point of view of the history of architecture this building is the unique connecting
link between the Gur Emir, where Humayun’s ancestor Tamerlane is buried, and the mausoleum of his grandson Shah
Jahan, i.e. Taj Mahal.
Humayun’s tomb was built thanks to the initiative of his widow Hamida Banu Begum, who commenced
the construction of a mausoleum for her deceased husband in 1565, nine years after his death. The construction was
finished in 1572.
The architecture of the tomb is strongly influenced by Persian architecture. The architect of
the building Mirak Mirza Ghiyas himself was of Persian origin. Ghiyas constructed the tomb in the center of a
Persian-style chaharbagh garden (translated from Farsi - four gardens) with quadrilateral form. The garden, divided
in four main parts by walkways or flowing water is created to resemble the paradise garden described in the Quran.
These four main parts on their turn are separated by channels to 36 parts.
From the 17th to the 19th centuries the garden was gradually filled with the tombs of Humayun’s
descendants and his entourage. Several Mughal emperors are even buried inside Humayun’s mausoleum. Humayun’s
mausoleum has earned the title of necropolis of the Mughal dynasty. No sepulcher in India or elsewhere contains
such a high number of tombs of the Mughal emperors and their relatives. Moreover, Humayun’s tomb is the first
garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent.
The mausoleum stands on a massive platform which has a height of up to 7 meters. The building is
constructed from red sandstone, while the tomb itself is made of yellow and black marble. The two-storied mausoleum
is crowned with white Persian style marble dome that seems weightless and imponderable. The height of Humayun's
Tomb is 47 meters, and its breadth is 91 meters.
The lower tier of this rectangular construction is decorated with graceful arches, which are
located around the whole perimeter of the building.
The cenotaph of the ruler is located in the center of the
upper tier in a large room decorated with several rows of arched windows.
The central chamber is octagonal with corner-chambers which
house the graves of other members of the royal family. The real grave of the
emperor is on the basement floor.
The architecture of the mausoleum has details both from
Persian architecture and Indian architectural traditions.
The Persian influence can be seen in the arched alcoves, corridors and the high double dome,
while Indian traditions have inspired the creation of the kiosks, which give it a pyramidal outline from